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Cinderella

Cinderella a Walt Disney production is based around the storyline of the children’s fairytale ‘Cinderella.’ Directed by Kenneth Branagh it is a wonderful effort to portray the struggle between right and wrong, good and evil suggesting that ‘having courage and being kind’ always ends in victory.

Ella is the daughter of a poor merchant and his wife. Ella’s mother is sick and dies. She is left behind with a father who remarries in the hope of providing Ella with the love of a mother. Ella’s father leaves for business asking Ella to be kind and obedient to her stepmother, Lady Tremaine (Cate Blanchet). However, the step mother and her two daughters, Anastasia (Holliday Ginger) and Drisella (Sophie Mcshera) treat Ella in a cruel manner. They exploit Ella’s kindness asking her to sleep next to the cinders in the attic hence giving her the name of Cinderella. When Ella’s father leaves he asks all his daughters to present their wishes. Whilst the step daughters ask for material things, Ella asks for the branch of a tree that first touches his father’s shoulder. Soon news is brought of his father’s demise, leaving Ella with the consolation of the present she had asked for.

The plot borrows some ideas from Shakespeare’s play King Lear, where Lear’s older daughters Goneril and Reagan too demand wealth where as Cordelia, the youngest daughter only asks for her father’s love. The parallel between Cordelia and Ella is stark.

As the film progresses one cannot help but notice the landscape of the city of London. The river Thames is polluted by the industrialization that overlaps the Victorian era of the 19th century. The Victorian era was an era of rigid behavior-proper ethics and hard core values. Victorian fashion for women included corsets and balloon gowns. The architecture was mostly gothic. Although the step mother and daughters lack in civilization and basic etiquettes, Cinderella seems to be a true emblem of the Victorian era.

One day as Ella tired of the cruelty of her so termed ‘family’ rides into the forest she encounters the prince. Cinderella is blend of faithfulness and beauty. She is kind and courageous, humble yet intelligent, talented yet not dumb. The prince inspired by her beauty and wit can think of no one except Ella as his future bride.

As the story ends in the traditional manner with the prince wedding Cinderella, one cannot help but realize the importance of values and morals that must be taught to the young generation. Cinderella holds an important message for children- kindness, humility and patience will always reward.

Cinderella only reacts when her parents are insulted by the step mother. She shows utmost perseverance in the face of tough circumstances. It is finally when she realizes that she is being used and abused without reason does she answer her step mother back. She is gifted and hardworking. She is honest and beautiful. She is caring and considerate. And it is because of all these virtues that she is able to defeat vice in the end.

A truly inspiring creation for children that is teaching them qualities that are essential to heal the world of its ills and evils, Cinderella is a must watch for all the little ones.

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Despicable Me 2

Despicable Me 2 is an animated film for children directed by Chris. The film/cartoon depicts a struggle between good and evil. The good force is represented by Lucy (Kristen Wiig) and her friend Gru (voiced by Steve Carell). In the subplot is the romance between Lucy and Gru who at the end get married. The evil force is represented by monster like figures called minions and Eduarado (aka El Macho)

The minion clad in purple fluff are bent on destroying the world. It is Lucy and GRU who save the world from destruction. Despicable Me 2  is a sequel to 2010’s hit Despicable Me. It features weapons and gadgets, except now with the aim to stop the spread of violence.

It is a mix of comedy and violence. The comic element is rooted in the violent acts. The film holds the attention of the audience which is a mix of adults and children. It is an evergreen film suitable for all ages.

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Ecofeminism in Noor.

Eco-criticism is a theory that examines the relationship between the physical environment and literature. It has four sub categories: Ecofeminism, Deep Ecology, Social Ecology and Eco-psychology.

This paper will attempt to analyze a piece of South Asian Fiction with respect to Eco-feminism.

The tem ecofeminism was first coined in 1975 by Rosemary Reuther. In putting the movement with its contemporary content, Val Plumwood asserts:

Ecological feminism is essentially a response to a set of key problems thrown up by the 2 great currents of the later part of the last century-feminism and the environmental movement. It is a combination of the movements of Deep Ecology and Feminism. There are different types of Eco-feminism but the central concern of all the variations is to link the oppression of women with that of nature.

Eco-feminists feel men dominate women and humans dominate nature. Consequently there is formed a link between women and nature. Eco-feminists seek to prevent this oppression. Eco-feminists feel that environmental efforts are essential to overcome the oppression of women. Eco-feminists do not want to attain equality with men for women. Rather they believe in achieving a liberation that can come through acknowledgement of women in the domestic arena such as women practices of child birth and nurturing.

Eco feminism says the oppression of women and nature arose out of patriarchy. The male qualities of reason, rationality and analysis are prioritized by the patriarchal system over the female qualities of intuition, emotion and compassion.

Eco feminism critiques the separation of  nature and culture. According to them the feminist qualities of cooperation and nurturing are supportive of creating an environmentally aware society. It does not view men as being an enemy to nature and women, rather it fights for a common ground for both sexes. It says the male/female traits are innate in all humans. However, the female traits are imposed by patriarchy. Eco-feminism equates women and nature in that both are marginalized by patriarchy.

To understand fully the concept of Eco-feminism it is imperative to trace its origins in history.

Equating men with culture and women with nature is an ancient concept. Woman’s role as a child bearer identifies women with nature. Men on the other hand did work that was more prestigious and energy consuming. Hence, is formed a connection between man and culture and woman and nature.

The earth from which plants emerge is linked to the bodies of women from which babies were born. Women and nature were seen as objects dominated by men rather than as resources.

Plum wood in her master model shows how nature, women and other marginalized groups have been influenced by the workings of the characteristics’ of dualism: back-grounding where the usefulness of the other to the master is denied and instrumentalism where the other serves the master with little or no recognition.

The paper will now apply the theory of Eco-feminism onto ‘Noor’, a South Asian fictive text written by Soraya Khan, a Bangladeshi author living in Ithaca, New York.

Published in 2003, it is set in the background of the 1971 Bhola cyclone and civil war that led to the separation of East and West Pakistan and resulted in the formation of a separate state of Bangladesh.

The female characters of Noor, Sajida and Nanijaan are placed at the center of the novel. The paper will examine and explore how women and nature are exploited by a male dominated society.

Sajida knew the “exact moment Noor was conceived.” ‘Noor was Sajida’s secret’. The lines point to the relationship Sajida shares with nature. Sajida shares a secret with nature, a secret that is a source of power for her. It gives her solace and comfort that she s unable to find in the world of men dominated by reason and logic. Such a world has no space for irrationalities such as Noor. It can only be understood by the world of women, the world of nature. Being a woman the qualities of intuition, spirituality and compassion are innate to her. She becomes one with nature as she feels the presence of Noor in her womb. Although she knew the exact moment of Noor’s birth yet she did not know what Noor had in store for her. Noor was borne with a deformity-down syndrome. Her features were as Sajida puts it “otherworldly.”Once again the greatness and complexity of nature is exposed in its manipulation of a variety of features within a single mould. “Her colour was richly dark, her flat nose was bridged by oddly slanted eyes, and her perfectly sculpted, miniature ears appeared as if they’ve been meant for a far younger child. The girl’s white teeth seemed too big for her mouth, yet the crowded rectangle fit one another in an impeccable row of white.” The human imagination ad mind has its limitations too. It cannot know nature in its entirety because nature is omnipotent and omniscient.

Sajida, five or six, was stranded in the streets of Dhaka after her family had been enveloped in the arms of the cyclone. Battered and scared she is rescued by Ali, a youn West Pakistani soldier, who adopts her and calls her his ‘beti.’ Ali in an attempt to reconcile with the guilt of the crimes he committed in war, takes Sajida as an excuse to atone for his sins. Even Nanijaan, Ali’s mother, is not allowed to question why or how regarding Sajida. Ali’s male chauvinism points to a patriarchal setup. Nanijaan is to have no queries and is simply supposed to accept Ali’s verdict. Nanijaan is treated as an inferior or sub ordinate. She warns Ali against war: ‘War is an animal gone mad’, but Ali pays no heed to a woman’s words. Nanijaan is a woman. What would a woman know of war? Ali has tightly packed away the memories of war in a corked bottle. Khan rightly analyzes Nanijaan’s desire to stay close to her son and Ali’s love for freedom makes a soldier out of him. Ali wants to escape all responsibilities such as marriage, children, etc. Ali committed heinous crimes during war. He killed, raped and abused. In an effort to erase all memories of the past he builds a huge mansion with a ‘senseless architecture’ fortified by rooms on all sides and a courtyard in the center. The house has its back on the Margalla hills and is in the remote sector of Islamabad. It is symbolic of a patriarchal setup as nature is not allowed to enter it. However, nanijaan and sajida find their way into nature as they sit on the rooftop of Ali’s mansion.

As Sajida matures she is wedded to Hussein, a budding businessman. She has two sons and a daughter, Noor. She lived a comfortable and happy life till the time came for Noor’s birth. Sajida and Hussein had a strained relationship because of the presence of Noor.

Hussein representative of patriarchy is unable to accept the fact that he could have been responsible for the birth of an abnormality such as Noor. He cannot ruin the future of his boys because of Noor. He is a typical patriarch who cannot understand Noor’s deformity. His decisions are based around reason and logic.  He separates himself from his wife, leaving her to face the difficult times. Sajida on the other hand takes decisions from her heart.

Sajida is heart broken but she cannot bear to isolate herself from Noor. This shows the resilience and patience with which Sajida acts in the face of oppression by Hussein.

Nanijaan too faces the brunt of male domination in her relationship with her husband. He beats her regularly while throwing a string of abusive language at her. He calls her a nagging and demanding woman. Nanijaan quietly puts up with him. Nanijaan is blamed by Ali for his death again, another example of male dominance and female strength. However, the power of silence and gaze shows how a woman’s silence is pitted against male verbosity. Words can cause only harm but silence can kill. Nanijaan having herself experienced a traumatic married relationship can empathize with Sajida. She takes a stand for Sajida, cursing Hussein for parting his way and asking him to reunite with Sajida.

Noor  is a gifted child. She can paint very well. In her paintings she can bring back the past to Sajida and Ali. She paints a fish boat, a fishing net and oil barrels bringing back memories of the war and the cyclone . Both Ali and Sajida are able to reconcile their past through Noor.

Sajida shared a one to one relationship with nature. Soiled in the mud and rain left by the “wall of water”,the cyclone, Sajida is able to have a one to one experience with nature. Whilst Hussein is symbolic of culture as represented by the stiff Italian shoe that shows refinement and civilization, Sajida knew nothing but the law and language of love. The male qualities of reason and rationale are contrasted with the female qualities of spirituality and divinity.

The relationship of nature with patriarchy and women will be analyzed. The stiff italian shoes, worn by Hussein are symbolic of patriarchy. They represent culture. The foot is entrapped in culture and cannot reach out to the earth.

Sajida on the other hand has been in a one to one relationship with nature. She has been through the cyclone full of mud, slime, rain and thunder. She is unlike the cocooned, shelled, suited booted Hussein.Hussein is as refined as the culture. He is alienated from nature. His avaricious nature does not allow us to admire the wilderness and beauty of nature around us.

Sajida views Noor with positivity whilst Hussein views her with negativity. Sajida is able to find a remedy for the screaming Noor who is pacified by the sound of the running water. Once again a link is formed between women, wilderness and nature. Noor a specimen of wild nature is soothed by water (nature) and Sajida’s voice (woman)

It is Noor who is successful in reuniting her parents at the end. It is only when she is able to paint an exact replica of Hussein’s Italian shoe that Hussein accepts her extra ordinary gift. Noor yearns for her father’s love. She sees him kissing her brothers but shows no sign of jealousy. Rather she waits patiently for her turn.

The focus shifts to the environment of the ‘cramped row house’ includes a little patio. A small outlet for Sajida to vent out her thoughts is the patio-an urbanized form of nature, a tame and tidied nature. Sajida tries to breathe in fresh air, provided by the patio to escape the suffocation she is feeling in her room, Hussein’s room. She needs to exit the space to be able to recollect her dreams. The room signifies the space inhabited by patriarchy. She needed to pull back the ‘heavy curtains’ that are hiding nature and hence symbolizing patriarchy. It’s almost as if the physical gesture of expressing the hidden is like removing the blur in the vision of her past.

Val Plumwood equates nature and women. Both share the characteristics of being a mother a nurturing force. The young child from Sajida’s past is innocent and her high pitched shriek for ‘Ammi’ is a manifestation of how she needs her mother for remaining alive in this world. How Sajida is a form of impure nature, turns to her mother for fostering a link between nature (Noor) and her own quest for the self. Both women and nature undergo the trial of giving birth. They and only they are capable of understanding the sensation, the experience and the emotion. But there are differences amongst women, a phenomenon called hypatia, as the nurse calls her weak and unsuited for the birth of a son. Sajida hides the existence of the unborn child from Hussein because she is afraid that Hussein might be angered at her unique experience. Language is a social construct that the males take for granted. As the sons repeated ‘Ammi’ it became meaningless. Language for the sons was a power, a priveledge granted to them by social hierarchy. In this hierary females and nature were at the very bottom, equivalent to being voiceless and signifying silence. They lacked the means to communicate, but Noor had her own language: a language that had its own urgency, its own intensity and I quote ” But the Ammi that grew from the stange girl was different. It had an urgency all its own, absent in the wails of her young son, who took the word for granted, blending the two syllables into expectation, repeating it again and again until it was merely a sound.” Noor is a woman who wants to break free from the “dictatorship of patriarchal speech.”

To conclude, Eco feminism is significantly weaved into the narrative of Noor. The female characters are at the center of the novel and the relationship of women with nature with patriarchy is analyzed in detail.
“He says that woman speaks with nature. That she hears voices from under the earth. That wind blows in her ears and trees whisper to her. That the dead sing through her mouth and the cries of infants are clear to her. But for him this dialogue is over. He says he is not part of this world, that he was set on this world as a stranger. He sets himself apart from woman and nature.

And so it is Goldilocks who goes to the home of the three bears, Little Red Riding Hood who converses with the wolf, Dorothy who befriends a lion, Snow White who talks to the birds, Cinderella with mice as her allies, the Mermaid who is half fish, Thumbelina courted by a mole. (And when we hear in the Navaho chant of the mountain that a grown man sits and smokes with bears and follows directions given to him by squirrels, we are surprised. We had thought only little girls spoke with animals.)

We are the bird’s eggs. Bird’s eggs, flowers, butterflies, rabbits, cows, sheep; we are caterpillars; we are leaves of ivy and sprigs of wallflower. We are women. We rise from the wave. We are gazelle and doe, elephant and whale, lilies and roses and peach, we are air, we are flame, we are oyster and pearl, we are girls. We are woman and nature. And he says he cannot hear us speak.

But we hear.”
― Susan GriffinWoman and Nature: The Roaring Inside Her

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Monk and the Big Game

Monk continues with his detective skills in the episode titled ‘Monk and the Big Game.’ Basketball coach Haydens dies in an accident in the bathroom. While drying herself up after a bath she is electrocuted as the hair dryer sparks off.

Monk is asked to solve the murder mystery. The basketball girls team comes to him for help. One of the girls is really upset as the apparent evidence points to her being the murderer. In the absence of a basketball coach Natalie,  Monk’s assistant is asked to coach the basketball team. In the last 30 seconds , the purple team (natalie’s team) wins. And Monk is able to resolve the mystery. However, in the remaining 2 seconds the other team wins a point.

The episode is about how one gets up with a firm resolve even after repeated failures. Monk is awarded trophes for all the previous cases he has solved and that adds to his sense of recognition. He stands in admiration of all that he has achieved. This one failure does not let him down. Instead it pulls his spirit up.

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Ecocriticism

Ecocriticism is a new theory that examines the relationship between the physical environment and literature. It branches off into a four main categories, namely eco feminism, ecopsychology, deep ecology and social ecology.

Ecofeminism says that women and nature are marginalized by patriarchy. Deep ecology focuses on the inherent value.ArnesNaess a philosopher and mountaineer introduced the phrase ‘deep ecology’ Deep ecology poised outright questions- the how’s and why’s. The fundamental causes of why we behave the way we do and questioned the purpose of our life. It explored the purpose of our life, our values and morals that started at the grassroots. Shallow ecology is concerned with the consumption and production habits. It believes that industrial and technological is essential for human survival. It promotes capitalism and consumerism whilst simultaneously arguing for preservation and conversation.Deep Ecology revolves around change redesigning our values and purpose and system o flifepreserving the cultural and special diversity of eco systems.  Eco Psychology is the search for identity by going into nature. Social ecology supports how the system of hierarchy is replaced by a more egalitarian society.

Eco criticism is of 2 types-British or Green studies and American ecocriticism. Green studies focuses on the causes and effects of ecological problems. American eco criticism on the other hand is celebratory. It celebrates the ‘return to nature.’It sees nature as a healer, mentor and source of comfort and joy.

What is the definition of environment? It is the physical surroundings that are essential for the sustenance of an individual. There are two types of environmental problems-micro and macro. Micro affect the citizens directly, e.g. slums, traffic jams, unsafe water. Macro are those that have an indirect effect on citizens such as draughts, famines, earthquakes, and other natural disasters.

There is a difference between the terms nature and culture. Culture describes nature as being separate with man rather than one in nexus. Nature is not dependent on man. Rather man needs nature for his sustenance. The term nature is a cultural construct. For example, the cover of the bible is made from animal skin and there are words written in it to connect nature to culture.

Wilderness is area that is not inhabited by human existence. The Wilderness Protection Act leads to the growth of industries such as tents, tinned food, camping, etc. This adversely affects nature. Consequently what follows is that humans and nature cannot live in communion with one another. However, wilderness exists for the spiritual and aesthetic needs of humans.

‘Pastoral’ is described as a retreat into the idyllic past, the life of the shepherd. According to Leo Marx, “No shepherd, no pastoral.”  Eco-criticism is developed as a complex theory that takes into account cultural, economic, environmental problems. According to Peter Reed, pastoral is of three types. The historical context, reference to idyllic past a form of idealized country life, second form of pastoral, direct or indirect contrast of the country with the urban landscape. If trees in the town are the focus of a text is essentially pastoral. It is celebratory. The third form is of pollution and threats to natural environment.There are five elements in pastoral-refuge, reflection, rescue, requiem, reconstruction, refuge into the past, reflection on past country life, old values rescued by text and reconstruction into a more complex reality.

Noor a south Asian fictive text written by Soraya Khan has been explored from nearly all angles such as a feminist text, cultural poetics, new historicism, etc but not from an ecological perspective.

At the center are female characters of Nanijaan, Sajida and Noor. Noor suffers from the down syndrome. However she has an extra ordinary gift- the talent to paint. Through this skill she is able to bring back the past for the protagonist Sajida and her father Ali.

The novel is set in the background of the Bhola cyclone and the civil war of 1971 that resulted in the separation of East and West Pakistan and the creation of Bangladesh. Sajida, Husseins wife faces the consequences of the patriarchal setup. However, she does not crumble. Rather she withholds the test of time.

It  was around this time his time back in history that a young west Pakistani soldier Ali, finds a girl of 5 or 6 wandering in the streets of Dhaka. Her name is Sajida and she lost her family in the cyclone. Ali adopts her and calls her his ‘beti.’ In an attempt to atone for the crimes he committed during war, Ali satisfies his guilt conscience by taking home the homeless child, Sajida. Even Nanijaan Ali’s mother is not allowed to question Ali.  Ali has tightly packed away the war memories in a corked bottle but through Noor he is forced to face and come to terms with his terrible past.

Ali’s relationship to his mother is very distant and remote. Nanijaan often caresses him. Ali pretends to be asleep but is patient thinking he owes this much to his mother.

Nanijaan rightly articulates “war is an animal gone mad.” But nanijaan is a woman. What would she know of war? Khan rightly analyzes that Nanijaan’s desire to stay close to her son and ali’s love for freedom is what makes a soldier out of him. Ali wants to escape all responsibilities such as marriage, children, etc. Ali committed heinous crimes during war. He killed, raped and abused. In an effort to erase all memories of the past he builds a huge mansion with “senseless architecture”, fortified by rooms on all sides and a courtyard in the center. The house has its back on the Margalla hills and is in the remote sector of Islamabad. It is symbolic of a patriarchal setup as nature is not allowed to enter it. Ali is like a worm in a cocoon waiting to burst open. The more Ali tries to forget his past, the more Noor brings it back for him through her drawings.

The military weapons made from nature(wood, steel) are being used against bigger nature (man and natural world). Man doesn’t realize that he is dependent upon nature for his survival. Eco psychology argues that the more we interact with the Other, the more we expand the search for the self.

The relationship of nature with patriarchy and women will be analyzed. The stiff italian shoes, worn by Hussein are symbolic of patriarchy. They represent culture. The foot is entrapped in culture and cannot reach out to the earth.

Sajida on the other hand has been in a one to one relationship with nature. She has been through the cyclone full of mud, slime, rain and thunder. She is unlike the cocooned, shelled, suited booted Hussein.Hussein is as refined as the culture. He is alienated from nature. The avaricious nature does not allow us to admire the wilderness and beauty of nature around us.

Nanijaans relationship to her husband is tyrannical. He is loud and abusive. He beats her and calls her a nagging and demanding woman. Nanijaan quietly puts up with him. Another example of male dominance and female strength is when nanijaans husband dies and ali blames her for his death. However, the power of silence and gaze, a womans power is piited against male verbosity.Silence  can kill but words only cause harm.

Another example of Nnijaans perseverance in the face of the threats of patriarchy is how she stands up for Sajida. She criticizes Hussein and  makes him feel guilty about having forsaken his wife.

Sajida, Ali’s daughter is married to Hussein. She knew the exact moment Noor was conceived. Noor suffered from down syndrome. However she was gifted with a special talent-the ability to paint the past. Sajida and Ali are able to confront the past via Noor. Noor paints the fish boat, fishing net, cyclone and oil barrels which bring back memories of war and cyclone. Khan is skillfully able to combine the historical and personal. Through Noor, a supernatural element, she is able to weave a story that is real and true. Hussein symbolic of patriarchy or male domination over women and nature. As Sajida, opens  the window to escape from the stifling heat in Hussein’s room she feels an air of fresh wind lash across her face from the patio, a symbol of man-made environment. The margalla hills are representative of wild nature whilst the patio is urban landscape. This also points to the socio economic conditions of the time-load shedding is affecting the environment of the country adversely.

The cyclone , ‘the wall of water’, the ‘alive’ nature will take away from  Sajida her loved ones. However, when nature destroys it creates something in its place. The various aspects of nature-its benevolence providence, destructive and cruel aspects as well as its beauty and ugliness will be viewed. .Nature can simultaneously take revenge whilst at the same time being merciful in giving second chances.   For example, the void created by the death of her brother Mukhtiaris  filled by the birth of her son Adel. Similarly the coming of the cyclone, destroys the innocent and guilty alike. However, nature creates a balance by giving Sajida a home and a father in the shape of Ali. Nature gives second chances. As much as he took from her he gave much more love, laughter, children especially, second chances. She believed  that her big healthy son was gods gift of giving her another chance.

Hussein a typical patriarch cannot understand noor’s deformity. Hussein cannot destroy the future of his boys because of Noor. His decisions are based around reason and logic. Sajida on the other hand takes decisions from the heart. She finds a remedy to soothe Noor. Running water pacifies the screams of Noor. Sajidaconstantly perseveres for her child unlike Hussein, who is devoid of all emotion and feelings.

Language is a social construct that males take for granted. The’ ammi’ repeated by the boys becomes  meaningless. Noor s a woman who wants to break free from the dictatorship of patriarchy.‘

Sajida shares a secret with nature-the moment of Noor’s birth. She finds comfort and solace in the arms of nature. Nature is given precedence over  male qualities of rationality and reason.However, Sajida ‘cannot summon the gentle shade ever again.’The realm of human imagination and mind has its limitations too. But nature is omnipotent and omniscient. Although Sajida knew the exact moment noor was to be conceived yet she had no idea what Noor had in store for her. Noor had otherworldly features.

Nature also plays the role of a benefactoress, providing Sajida with warmth in the cold environment of the bathroom. The presence of Noor in her belly warms her as if she has  draped a shawl over herself.

Turtles Nest by ChandniLokuge is a novel that centers around the themes of diaspora, tourism and culture. Aruni the central character is caught between two opposing identities-Srilankan and Australian.

Born to Neela and Mohan, Sri lankan parents who had migrated to Australia, Aruni returns to her homeland in quest of her identity. She meets Simon and Priya, her mother’s uncle and friend, who help her put the pieces of the puzzle together.

Mala ( Arunis mother) dreams big but dreams cost money. She belongs to a poor fishing family and is exploited by tourists. Fate does not side her and she becomes pregnant. However, this child is not Aruni. Aruni is born later.

Turtles Nest is viewed from an ecocritical perspective. Eco feminism is applied in the case of Aruni and Mala who are exploited by the patriarchal system. Similarly in Jamis and Asilin’s  (Arunis parents) relationship, ecofeminism resurfaces in Jamis beating of Asilin.  Eco psychology is applied in Aruni’s quest of identity by going into nature. Deep Ecology is applied in the exploitation of turtles that are an integral part of the marine ecosystem. Social ecology is seen in the destruction of the natural environment and wilderness such as the development of tourism, and the commercialization of Mount Lihiniya.

Aruni is compared to a coconut soft on the inside and hard and brown on the outside. She is ‘tossed and husked’ like a coconut by the tide of the sea. The novel has a common theme but it is unique in imagery and stylistic techniques. It flows from the past to present and again into the past like the ebb and flow of the sea that recedes and then goes forward.

There are several small incidents that contribute significantly to the text. Aruni and Paul’s relationship, Priya’s rape, Premasiri and Aruni’s moonlight dance, etc. These incidents are weaved indirectly into the text.

Mala upon being raped and becoming pregnant is thrown out of the house by Jamis, her father. She is given shelter by the nuns of the convent in the house of Neela and Mohan. However, here too her sensual nature exploits her. As she falls asleep on Neela and Mohan’s bed, she is raped by Mohan. She becomes pregnant with Aruni whom she leaves at the doorstep of Neela and Mohan, while revealing the truth about the father. Although Neela takes care of Aruni she is never really able to accept and love her as her own child. Tired of people’s prying and interfering nature she at last seeks refuge in migrating to Australia.

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monk

Monk written by Andy Brechman and directed by Stephen Surjec is a television serial aired on star world. The episode I will discuss is ‘Mr Monk Bumps his Head.’

Monk is a detective who gets into an accident and consequently becomes a victim of amnesia. The man who saves him gives him money to buy food. As he recovers from the shock whilst eating with the money given to him by the man who saves his life, he seems to develop a soft corner for the waitress at the restaurant .

Meanwhile a woman who calls herself Cora claims to be Adrian Monk’s wife . She tells him his name is Jerry and that he’s a roofer.

Mr Monk goes to the restaurant to give the waitress her remaining money. However he finds out that she quit. As he reads the note by her the detective in him comes out and as he puts two and two together he is led to her murderer and he is re united with his employees who were worried that he may have died in the accident.

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Monk

Monk a tv serial by star world is an interesting series. Adrain Monk is a detective who is shy and afraid to talk women. After the death of his wife Trudy, he falls for every other woman but is doesn’t understand how to talk to women.

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